Gilles Deleuze (Paris, 1925-1995)
The earliest works of philosopher Gilles Deleuze were introductions to the major thinkers or histories of philosophy focusing on figures such as Nietsche, Kant, Spinoza, Hume, and Bergson. With Empiricism and Subjectivity (1953), he developed a critical position toward Kantian philosophy. His 1962 Nietsche and Philosophy remains one of his key works. Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, which he published with Felix Guattari in 1972, gave rise to a polemic because of its attack on classical psychoanalysis and reactive Lacano-Freudian thought. Deleuze's own preoccupations lay rather with positive thought, the idea of an anti-dialectics, the praise of multiple desires, experience versus interpretation, affirmation versus resentment, the figure of the rhizome versus rationality. In addition to classical philosophy, Deleuze's interests included politics, literature (Proust, Kafka, Lewis Carroll), painting (Francis Bacon), and film. In 1983 and 1985 he published two fundamental works on the cinema: The Movement-Image and The Time-Image. Considering the cinema as a totality, these two volumes trace a picture of all the possible images to come. Deleuze reflects on the movement and time of images, from the "perception-image," which is the elementary form of the movement-image, to the "cinema, body, brain, thought," which is one of the culminations of the time-image.
Bibliography of works available in English translation: Empiricism and Subjectivity (1953, tr. 1991). Nietsche and Philosophy (1962, tr. 1983). Kant's Critical Philosophy (1963, tr. 1984). Proust and Signs (1964, tr. 1972). Bergsonism (1966, tr. 1988). Masochism: An Interpretation of Coldness and Cruelty (1967, tr. 1971). Expressionism in Philosophy: Spinoza (1968, tr. 1990). Difference and Repetition (1969, tr. 1994). The Logic of Sense (1969, tr. 1990). Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, with Felix Guattari (1972, tr. 1977). Kafka, Toward a Minor Literature, with Felix Guattari (1975, tr. 1986). On the Line (Rhizome), with Felix Guattari (1976, tr. 1983). Dialogues, with Claire Parnet (1977, tr. 1987). A Thousand Plateaus, with Felix Guattari (1980, tr. 1987). Spinoza, Practical Philosophy (1981, tr. 1988). Cinema: The Movement-Image and The Time-Image (1983, tr. 1986-1989). The Fold: Leibniz and the Baroque (1988, tr. 1993). Negotiations (1990, tr. 1995). What Is Philosophy? with Felix Guattari (1991, tr. 1994).

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Marcel Duchamp
"Marcel Duchamp did everything except video. He realised a large entrance door and a tiny exit door. The latter is video. It's by getting through it that you will get out of Marcel Duchamp !" (Nam June Paik)

Anne-Marie Duguet (Paris, 1947- )
Trained in the sociology of art, writer and critic Anne-Marie Duguet has taught theater and sociology of television at the University of Paris 1, where she is now assistant professor in the Arts Department and directs the Center for Research on Film and Audiovisual Arts. She also teaches the aesthetics of electronic and computer images. After creating a video workshop in 1973, she began specializing in video in the late 1970s and was a member of the editorial board of Vidéoglyphes from 1979 to 1981. In 1981 she published one of the first books in France dealing with video as a means of expression, Vidéo, la mémoire au poing, which dealt with alternative social practices, conditions of access to production in France, the use of the medium as a critique of television, and the involvement of women in video. Duguet has observed a wide range of social, political, and artistic styles in video. In 1991 she organized an exhibition on the work of Jean-Christophe Averty, the French pioneer of special effects for television, and in 1993, a retrospective of the work of video artist Thierry Kuntzel.

Dziga Vertov Group
The Dziga Vertov Group, which included Jean-Luc Godard, Jean-Pierre Gorin, Gérard Martin, Nathalie Billard, and Armand Marco, emerged in France in the wake of May '68. It grew out of the encounter between Godard the filmmaker and Gorin the political activist and their shared belief in the necessity of "setting up a new unit that would not make political film but try to make political film politically" (Godard). The name of the revolutionary Russian filmmaker Dziga Vertov thus became the symbol for a kind of filmmaking that would reveal the world in the name of the proletariat. The group's focus was production rather than distribution. For its Marxist-oriented members, production was to determine distribution and consumption. Through Godard's repution, they were able to get commissions from the television networks, although these were sometimes later canceled, as was the case with the BBC and RAI. They also made films for German television. Convinced of the poor quality of political films and the fact that these preached to the converted, the Dziga Vertov Group did not attempt to enter the parallel distribution circuits that existed for them. They did not seek to create new forms but rather, new relationships. They attempted a different approach to filmmaking, which, behind a certain didacticism, was no less virulent in its content, as suggested by this excerpt from a page prepared for the radical magazine Politique Hebdo: "During the projection of an imperialist film, the screen sells viewers the voice of the Owner-State. This voice caresses you, puts you to sleep, or beats you over the head. During the projection of a revisionist film, the screen is a loudspeaker projecting a voice that had once been delegated by the people but which is no longer their voice. The people look silently at their own deformed faces. During the projection of a political film, the screen is simply a blackboard inscribed with the images and sounds produced by the concrete analysis of a concrete situation, namely the class struggle. In front of this screen, the poopulation thinks, learns, struggles, criticizes, and transforms itself" (Godard par Godard, Paris, l'Etoile, 1985).